There would be no electronics without semiconductors. Semiconductors are materials which carry very small electric current. But no matter how many kinds of Semiconductors may be found in how much amount, they would be of no use without methods to pick up such small current.
Below is there a typical method of such elaborate detection, that I have tried to express as simple as possible.
These two bars, which look much as in the same length, have indeed have a length ratio of 10.01(left) and 10.02(right).
When we cut 10.00 in ratio of each bar, their ratio comes to be 0.01 and 0.02, which shows a clear difference.
There is another method of pick up small difference. These two boxes look to stand just side by side.
When we set the background to a deeper color, we could find a slight interval between them.
There is no straightforward method to pick up such small difference. Many scientists and engineers make many trials and errors to bring a miracle idea for that. Thus we have today’s computers thanks for semiconductors and methods to evaluate them, and people who have discovered both the materials and the methods.